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MH370wiki.net - Decoding MH370

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Introduction

On Saturday 8th March 2014 Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 disappeared. The response by Malaysia Airlines and the Department of Civil Aviation started a search and rescue operation in the South China Sea. However, Malaysian military radar had detected an unidentified aircraft crossing Malaysia which was probably the MH370 Boeing 777-200. And Inmarsat recorded satellite signals coming from the aircraft hours after it went missing. Also, several people saw aircraft which could have been the missing plane. Yet none of these independent observations came together until days later. Find out what really happened by reading each story.

Malaysia Airlines B777-200ER

Incident Response

Saturday 8 March 2014

Time MYTMalaysian Time (MYT) is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) + 8 hours Event Source
00:41:43 MH 370 took off from Runway 32R at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIAKuala Lumpur International Airport) on a scheduled flight to Beijing, China [1]
00:42:07 MH 370 was cleared to climb to Flight Level (FLFlight Level.) 1803 and was issued a direct track by LUMPUR APPROACH at Kuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre (KLATCCKuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre) to waypoint IGARIWaypoint Country SG Latitude 6° 56' 10.00" N Longitude 103° 35' 6.00" E. [1]
00:42:52 MH 370 was transferred to LUMPUR RADARRadio Detection and Range at KLATCCKuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre [1]
00:46:51 The flight was cleared to climb to FL 250Flight Level at 25000 feet. [1]
00:50:06 The flight was cleared to climb to FL 350Flight Level at 35000 feet. [1]
01:01:16 MH 370 reported maintaining FL 350Flight Level at 35000 feet. [1]
01:07:55 MH 370 reported maintaining FL 350Flight Level at 35000 feet. again [1]
01:19:24 LUMPUR RADARRadio Detection and Range at KLATCCKuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre instructed MH370 to contact HO CHI MINH Air Traffic Control Centre (HCMATCCHO CHI MINH Air Traffic Control Centre) on radio frequency 120.9 MHzMegahertz. MH 370 acknowledged with “good night Malaysian Three Seven Zero”. [1]
01:21:04 MH370 was observed on the radar screen at KLATCCKuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre as it passed over waypoint IGARIWaypoint Country SG Latitude 6° 56' 10.00" N Longitude 103° 35' 6.00" E. [1]
01:21:13 The radar label for MH 370 disappeared from the radar screen at LUMPUR RADARRadio Detection and Range KLATCCKuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre [1]
01:38:00 HCMATCCHO CHI MINH Air Traffic Control Centre made a query to KLATCCKuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre on the whereabouts of MH 370. [1]
01:38 to 05:30 KLATCCKuala Lumpur Air Traffic Control Centre initiated efforts involving MAS OPS Center, Singapore ACCAir-traffic Control Centre, Hong Kong ACCAir-traffic Control Centre and Phnom Penh ACCAir-traffic Control Centre to establish the location of MH 370. No contact had been established by any ATCAir Traffic Control units and thus the Rescue Coordination Centre (RCCRescue Coordination Centre) was activated at 05:30 MYTMalaysian Time (MYT) is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) + 8 hours. [1]
05:30 Rescue Coordination Centre (RCCRescue Coordination Centre) was activated [1]


06:30:00

Flight MH370 failed to arrive at Beijing International Airport

07:24:00

Malaysia Airlines (MASMalaysia Airline Systems) and Department of Civil Aviation (DCADepartment of Civil Aviation (Malaysia)) release first Media Statement for MH370 Incident stating the known facts:-

  • flight MH370 has lost contact with Subang Air Traffic Control at 2.40am
  • the flight was carrying a total number of 227 passengers (including 2 infants) and 12 crew members.
  • Malaysia Airlines is currently working with the authorities who have activated their Search and Rescue team to locate the aircraft.

09:05:00

MAS and DCADepartment of Civil Aviation (Malaysia) release 2nd Media Statement:- Our team is currently calling the next-of-kin of passengers and crew.

10:30am

MAS and DCADepartment of Civil Aviation (Malaysia) release 3rd Media Statement "There has been speculation that the aircraft has landed at Nanming. We are working to verify the authenticity of the report and others.

14:30:00

Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident update as 2.30pm

4:20pm

Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident - 4th Media Statement

4.30pm

MAS deploys a “Go Team” to Beijing which will depart Kuala Lumpur International Airport at 4.30pm with a team of caregivers and volunteers to assist the family members of the passengers.

7:20pm

Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident - 5th Media Statement


Military Radar

Malaysian military radar DID detect an unidentified aircraft flying across the country from east to west.

What really happened is summarized below on the left. That is quite different from the sample of media headlines shown below on the right.

On Saturday the Minister for Defence and Acting Transport Minister Datuk Seri Hishammuddin HusseinMinister of Defence and Acting Minister of Transport requested the Defence Department to review their radar logs. By late morning he knew that:-

  • Military radar detected an unidentified aircraft crossing Malaysia from east to west
  • The aircraft was not viewed as hostile
  • The military did not send fighter jets to intercept the aircraft

Hishammuddin informed Prime Minister Najib Razak who authorized a search to be commenced in the Straits of Malacca on Sunday.

The Official search and rescue effort continued in the South China Sea.

Malaysia Airlines MH370: Military denies missing plane detected on radar far from flight path ABC News 12 Mar 2014 [1]


Was the military contacted when the aircraft went missing?

There is no mention in the transcripts of any communication between the air traffic controllers and the military.

However, the news agency Reuters reported that one senior military official said air traffic control had informed the military at around 2:00 a.m. that a plane was missing, and another military source said the notification was slow in coming, but did not give a time. The standard operating procedure was to do so within 15 minutes. [2]


Notes and References
  1. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-03-12/malaysian-military-denies-detecting-missing-plane/5314212
  2. MH370 Tragedy: M’sia investigating confused initial response to missing jet - Latest - New Straits Times

Satellite Signals

Satellite Text

It was later established that the transmissions from the Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARSAircraft Communication and Reporting System) through satellite communication system occurred at regular intervals starting before MH 370 departed Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia at time 12:56:08 MYTMalaysian Time (MYT) is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) + 8 hours and with the last communication occurred at 01:07:49 MYTMalaysian Time (MYT) is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) + 8 hours.[1]


Sightings and Incidents

Time
Incident description

1:20am

Mysterious sound heard at Marang Beach, north east of Pulau Kapas, Malaysia.

Eight men were sitting on a bench about 400 metres from the Marang Beach at 1:20am when they heard a loud explosion. The men reported the incident to the Terengganu police. The report was then forwarded to the Bukit Aman police..[1]

1:30am

Pilot establishes contact with MH370

A pilot in a Boeing 777 flying ahead of MH370 (bound for Narita, Japan) was asked by Vietnamese air traffic control to contact MH370. The pilot heard a person mumbling (he believed it was MH370 co-pilot) and there was a lot of interference or static.[2]

Time

Oil Rig Worker

Time

British Sailor

6:15am GMTGreenwich Mean Time +5

Low-flying "jumbo jet" seen over Maldives atoll

Residents of Kuda Huvadhoo in Dhaal Atoll reported seeing a white aircraft with red stripes on it flying low in a north to south-east direction. They were alerted by the loud noise it made.[3]


Notes and References
  1. MISSING MH370: Terengganu police receive report on explosion in Marang. New Straits Times. 12 March 2014
  2. MISSING MH370: Pilot: I established contact with plane. New Straits Times. 12 March 2014
  3. Maldives island residents report sighting of 'low flying jet'. Haveeru Online. 18 March 2014. http://www.haveeru.com.mv/news/54062

An Accident?

On 29 January, 2015 the Director General of Department of Aviation (Malaysia) issued a Press Statement[1] in which the loss of MH370 was described as 'an accident'. This appears to conflict with the many previous statements that MH370 remained under control of one or more persons. However, as explained by Mr Rahman the terminology is from the ICAOInternational Civil Aviation Organisation Annexe 13. The Statement is presented here so the contents can be linked to other parts of this Wiki.

ANNOUNCEMENT ON MH370

BY

DIRECTOR GENERAL

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AVIATION MALAYSIA

INTRODUCTION

Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen, members of the media.

1. My name is Azharuddin Abdul Rahman, Director General of the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia and I am here today in my capacity as the Chairman of the MH370 High Level Technical Task Force (HLTTF).

2. As you are aware, the HLTTF was formed to coordinate technical matters relating to MH370.

BACKGROUND

3. On 8 March 2014 at 0122 Malaysia Local Time (1722 UTC 7 March 2014), a Malaysian Airlines aircraft, a Boeing 777-2H6ER, registration 9M-MRO and call-sign MH370, lost contact with Air Traffic Control after waypoint IGARI during a transition of airspace between Malaysia and Vietnam whilst en-route to Beijing.

4. There were 227 passengers, 2 flight crew and 10 cabin crew on board.

SEARCH EFFORTS

5. The Search and Rescue mission involved 160 assets inclusive of 65 aircraft and 95 vessels as well as experts from 25 countries. This unprecedented exercise involved aircraft and vessels from the following countries:

  • Australia (4Aircraft, 2 vessels
  • Cambodia (4 Aircraft)
  • China (13 Aircraft, 19 vessels)
  • India (4vessels)
  • Indonesia (11 vessels)
  • Japan (4Aircraft)
  • New Zealand (1Aircraft)
  • Singapore (3 Aircraft, 2vessels)
  • South Korea (2 Aircraft)3
  • Thailand (1Aircraft, 1vessels)
  • United Arab Emirates (2 Aircraft)
  • United States of America (5 Aircraft, 4 vessels)
  • Vietnam (2 Aircraft, 2 vessels)

6. Other countries unable to send physical assets also provided invaluable support in other ways. Many individuals also stepped up to provide assistance in whatever way they could.

7. Malaysia is greatly indebted to all the countries and individuals for all the assistance and support received. We offer our heartfelt gratitude for the generosity of response in a dark hour in the history of the aviation industry.

8. The search and rescue phase was carried out from 8 March 2014 to 28 April 2014 where the search area covered the South China Sea, the Straits of Malacca, the Andaman Sea and the southern Indian Ocean.

9. Following the announcement by the Australian Government on 28 April2014, the search and rescue phase transitioned to a search and recovery phase.

10. On 28 April 2014, the search coordinated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) moved to an underwater phase led by the Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC) and the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB). Malaysia and China sent their respective experts and assets to assist JACC and ATSB in this phase.

11. This phase of the search included the use of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and bathymetry survey capabilities. The Bathymetry Survey has completed covering an area of around 208,000 square kilometres.

12. The bathymetric survey provided us with critical information on the topography of the sea floor. This information is now assisting in the current ongoing phase which is the underwater search.

13. The underwater search is still ongoing at this time and the exercise is currently being performed by 4 vessels, namely the Go Phoenix, Fugro Discovery, Fugro Equator and Fugro Supporter. To date, the search has covered over 18,600 square kilometres (as of 28 Jan15).

THE DECLARATION

14. The Governments of Malaysia, China and Australia have spared no expense and resources in the search for MH370. This has been done with the paramount aim to find the aircraft and to seek answers. It has been done in hope of bringing some solace to the families of the passengers and crew on board MH370, which we respectfully refer to as the "next-of-kin". We have endeavoured and pursued every credible lead and reviewed all available data. Despite all these efforts over the last 327 days (as of 28 Jan 15), the search unfortunately has yet to yield the location of the missing aircraft.

15. Chapter 1 of Annex 13 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (commonly referred to as the "Chicago Convention") and entitled "Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation" states that the definition of the term "accident" includes "the aircraft is missing". It also states that "an aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located". Annex 12 to the Chicago Convention entitled "International Standards and Recommended Practices" for search and rescue, further states that the term "search" refers to an operation to locate persons in distress.

16. According to the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), Annex 12 (para 5.5.1) states that search and rescue operations shall continue, when practicable, until all survivors are delivered to a place of safety or until all reasonable hope of rescuing survivors has passed. Further, a note supporting para 5.5.2 states that "Contracting States may require input from other appropriate State authorities in the decision-making process leading to termination of SAR (search and rescue) operations".

17. It was in compliance with these ICAO Standards in Annexes 12 and 13 that on 28 April 2014, the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) advised that the search was transitioning from a search and rescue operation to a search and recovery phase.

18. Available data suggests that after the transponder ceased transmitting, there was no normal radio or aircraft system (ACARS) communications transmitted or received from the aircraft. Hence, we relied on the only available data, which was the Satellite Communication (SATCOM)/Inmarsat data as well as Aircraft Performance Data.

19. An analysis of the radar data and subsequent satellite communication (SATCOM) system signalling messages placed the aircraft in the Australian search and rescue zone on an arc in the southern Indian Ocean. This arc was considered to be the location close to where the aircraft’s fuel would have been exhausted.

20. Based on the analysis of all available evidence and the supporting factual information that I have mentioned, this data supports the conclusion that MH370 ended its flight in the southern Indian Ocean.

21. Based on the same data, we have concluded that the aircraft exhausted its fuel over a defined area of the southern Indian Ocean, and that the aircraft is located on the sea floor close to that defined area. This is a remote location, far from any possible landing sites. It is also an area with adverse sea conditions with known depths of more than 6,000 metres.

22. After 327 days (as of 28 Jan15) and based on all available data as well as circumstances mentioned earlier, survivability in the defined area is highly unlikely.

23. It is therefore, with the heaviest heart and deepest sorrow that, on behalf of the Government of Malaysia, we officially declare Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 an accident in accordance with the Standards of Annexes 12 and 13 to the Chicago Convention and that all 239 of the passengers and crew onboard MH370 are presumed to have lost their lives.

NEXT OF KIN

24.The Government of Malaysia acknowledges that this declaration of the MH370 accident will be very difficult for the families and loved ones of the 227 passengers and 12 crew on board to consider, much less accept. Thirteen nations have also lost sons and daughters to this tragedy. It is nonetheless important that families try to resume normal lives, or as normal a life as may be possible after this sudden loss. Without in any way intending to diminish the feelings of the families, it is hoped that this declaration will enable the families to obtain the assistance they need, in particular through the compensation process.

25. The Government of Malaysia also assures the families of the passengers and crew that the search for MH370 remains a priority. The Government of Malaysia, is committed to continue all reasonable efforts to bring closure to this unfortunate tragedy, with the continuing cooperation and assistance of the Governments of China and Australia.

26. The Government of Malaysia assures that Malaysia Airlines will undertake their responsibilities in relation to the legitimate rights and interests of the next-of-kin as provided under the relevant international instruments and relevant domestic laws, with due consideration to international practice. This includes the fulfilment of the compensation process, whether it is pursued through consultation or through litigation. We further understand that Malaysia Airlines is ready to proceed immediately with the compensation process, with due regard for the readiness of the next-of-kin to take this step.

27. In keeping with our commitments to keep the next-of-kin apprised of the latest developments and pertinent verified information, a special section has been established on the MH370 official website, http://www.mh370.gov.my, solely for the next-of-kin.

It includes information on the search and investigation efforts, the compensation process, responses to NOK’s inquiries as well as other forms of assistance that are available to the next-of-kin. It is hoped that this dedicated portal will provide a continuing support system for the next-of-kin.

INVESTIGATION

28. The "Malaysian ICAO Annex 13 Safety Investigation Team for MH370", comprising accredited representatives from seven countries is currently conducting its safety investigation. Similarly, the criminal investigation led by the Royal Malaysia Police is also ongoing.

29. Both investigations are limited by the lack of physical evidence at this time, particularly the flight recorders. Therefore at this juncture there is no evidence to substantiate any speculations as to the cause of the accident. An interim statement detailing the progress of the safety investigation is expected to be released on or around the one year anniversary of the accident.

CLOSING

30. We once again express our deepest sympathy to all those who have been affected by this terrible accident. It has been a frustrating time for all who have tried their best in the search for MH370.We have never wavered in our commitment to continue our efforts to find MH370 and bring closure for everyone, most of all for the families of the passengers and crew of MH370.

31.This declaration is by no means the end. We will forge ahead with the cooperation and assistance of the Governments of China and Australia. MH370, its passengers and its crew will always be remembered and honoured.

Dato’ Azharuddin Abdul Rahman

Director General Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia